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3

I would like to add that Painters' algorithm can be run from front to back with transparency provided your blending operations are associative. I would recommend reading Jim Blinn's "Compositing, Part 1: Theory". (Indeed, reading anything graphics related by Jim Blinn is highly recommended). In this article, Blinn explains (amongst their other advantages) ...


0

It may be worth mentioning that the reverse painter's algorithm does not handle transparency. If you read and understand @Chris's answer the reason for this is straightforward. Combining the already rendered color (using alpha blending) does not work if the objects behind your transparent object have not been rendered yet.


3

Probably the easiest way to get an arbitrary precision Mandelbrot set using full-precision integers is to combine two integers into a rational number $p/q$. These numbers are added by finding the common denominator: $$ \frac{m}{n} + \frac{p}{q} = \frac{mq + np}{nq} $$ and multiplied by just multiplying the respective numerators and denominators: $$ \frac{m}{...


1

If you just want to explicitly sample an area light, then here's the general procedure you should follow. Pick light $i$ out of $L$ lights with some probability $p_i$ (the other probabilities being $p_1,...,p_L$, a light may be picked through inverse transform sampling). Pick a point $\pmb{y}$ on the surface of the light with some probability $q_i(\pmb{y})$. ...


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