# Tag Info

Accepted

### How to properly combine the diffuse and specular terms?

Using two Fresnel terms is correct in the sense that any given diffuse path will pass through the surface twice. If you're solving diffusion by tracing a path through the medium until it bounces out ...
• 330
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### Why normalise Lambertian BRDF by 1/pi?

I think I got it! Because $cos(\theta)$ integrates to $\pi$ over the hemisphere (and not $2\pi$). And the incoming light is multiplied by $cos(\theta)$ (and the BRDF).
• 520

### Confused with PBR implementations

DFG pops up in the family of microfacet based BRDFs. It is simply the product of three terms: D : The microfacet distribution. F : The fresnel coefficient. G : The geometric attenuation between ...
• 1,585
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### In a physically based BRDF, what vector should be used to compute the Fresnel coefficient?

In Schlick's 1994 paper, "An Inexpensive Model for Physically-Based Rendering", where they derive the approximation, the formula is: F_{\lambda}(u) = f_{\lambda} + (1 - f_{\lambda})(1 - u)^...
• 3,792
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### 16bit half-float linear HDR images as (diffuse/albedo) textures?

In film production, we almost never use 8-bit textures for color/albedo, because of banding, etc. (JPEG is especially problematic since by spec, it's sRGB rather than linear values.) We either use '...
• 206
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### Why is the half vector not used in diffuse BRDF Fresnel calculations?

I finally figured out a flaw in my argumentation to use the half vector for the diffuse part. tl;dr version: $\alpha_{hi}$ and $\alpha_{ho}$ are not equal, this assumption only works for the specular ...
• 1,566

### How to properly combine the diffuse and specular terms?

While browsing to properly write my question, I actually found the answer, which happens to be very simple. Another Fresnel term is also going to weight in as the photons make their way out of the ...
• 4,420

### In a physically based BRDF, what vector should be used to compute the Fresnel coefficient?

The Fresnel coefficient should be evaluated using $H$, not $N$. You wrote, I have trouble seeing why we can still use that formula in a BRDF, which is supposed to approximate the integral over all ...
• 25.1k

### 16bit half-float linear HDR images as (diffuse/albedo) textures?

Yes, it's possible in some extreme cases for HDR lighting and tonemapping to expose banding issues in color textures. In those cases, having a higher bit depth for the textures could be useful. ...
• 25.1k
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### Correct form of the GGX geometry term

TL;DR: Your $G1$ formula is wrong. Just to avoid confusion, I am assuming the isotropic version of the BRDF, the Smith microfacet model (as opposed to the V-cavity model), and the GGX microfacet ...
• 1,464

### Dealing with blown-out highlights in PBR

Using physically based BRDFs only makes sense if your entire pipeline is built for physical units - the extreme range of values can't be displayed properly without some form of tone mapping. You didn'...
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### Roughness Value of (Close to) Zero in Physically Based Rendering

Yes, I think it's expected that setting roughness = 0, combined with using point lights for illumination, leads to no visible specular highlight. The size of the highlight is infinitesimally small, so ...
• 25.1k
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### Tasks of a professional graphics programmer?

I don't know if this is exactly what you're looking for. I work tangentially in the film and TV industry. I don't work for a studio, but I work on the software that studios use for their productions. ...
• 3,421
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• 25.1k
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### Roughness Remapping

In general, artists like working with a linear roughness value between 0 and 1 (similarly for all other material parameters), since this is easier to work with and to understand compared to directly ...
• 1,084

### How are Physically Based Rendering Methods Researched?

The most straightforward method of researching physically based lighting is to grab a light and a camera and start taking pictures of an object from all angles when lit from all angles at varying ...
• 5,950

### Bug: Overly Sharp Highlights in PBR

Just to comment on the 0.16*Specular^2 term that was mentioned in the comments by Karim: Frostbite only remaps the specularity for their internal purpose so that they can pack gemstones specularity ...

### PBR missing rim darkening on non metallic rough surfaces

The problem is in the diffuse term, which can be seen by making the specular portion of IBL not be added into the result. The diffuse only render will not have the darkening, and of course, the ...
• 7,801
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### Can't understand the Importance sampling GGX

In microfacet BRDFs, the half-vector is the same as the microfacet normal. The half-vector is exactly the required normal for a microfacet to reflect light from the incident ray to the outgoing ray, ...
• 25.1k
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### Iridescence/Thin-film interference integration as a layer

Unfortunately, the iridescence model is not made to be applied to a diffuse term. Pascal and I made it for microfacet models only (that is the specular term). One way to understand how to include it ...

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