# Questions tagged [lighting]

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• 119
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### How to improve rendering of surface water in shaded-relief images

I asked a version of this question on GIS Stack Exchange three months ago, but did not receive an answer. So I am posting it here. I’ve written a simple Java application for rendering high-resolution ...
• 146
96 views

### Light brightness calculation

I've implemented the Phong shading model and I would like to improve the brightness depending to the distance of the light, its spectrum, luminosity and the cameras exposure time. Each of your light ...
• 1,198
48 views

### Understanding the diffuse component of light

I'm a little bit confused with the transition from just setting solid colors to object to involving light and its different components. For instance, the following formula $R = I K_d max(0, n.l)$ that ...
• 115
1 vote
30 views

### Distance to arbitrary set of line segments acceleration structure?

Background: I'm trying to render lightning within a volumetrically rendered cloud. I'm currently using a series of line-segments to represent lightning. At first I used a distance field rendered into ...
• 280
182 views

### physics/math of lighting gradient of a 3D object

Consider a monochrome ball. The colours of the pixels is a function of the point height, the light intensity, the light angle, and the surface material (reflection). What is the simplest formula ...
• 131
1 vote
83 views

### Using the Preetham/Shirley/Smits daylight model to get practical (s)RGB values

I have implemented Preetham, Shirley, and Smits’s daylight model using Aubrey Jaffer’s Scheme implementation as a reference and confirmed that my implementation produces the same results in the xyY ...
671 views

### Rendering equation - brdf / pdf > 1?

I am creating a path tracer and I got some strange results when calculating the strength of light. I am using a rendering equation inspired by this diagram: When I use the cosine everything gets ...
1 vote
285 views

### How are point and pure directional lights sampled in an unbiased path tracer?

To perform importance sampling on a light source, a probability density function must be provided for the sampling distribution. For most light sources, a valid probability distribution can be found, ...
1 vote
144 views

### Are virtual point lights in many-light global illumination the same light probes?

There are several papers like this one here that refer to a concept called many-light global illumination using Virtual Point Lights (VPL). That is, the problem of global illumination is reduced to a ...
• 164
318 views

### Next Event Estimation for Triangle-based Light Sources

I have a question regarding the NEE for light sources that are composed from triangles. I implemented the next event estimation (explicit light source sampling) for spherical light sources but after ...
• 41
187 views

### OpenGL old-style diffuse shading producing unexpected effects

Question: What is going wrong with the shape of the contours of constant illumination in the below picture ? Detail: Although Lambertian shading might be ill-regarded because it exposes the hard edges ...
• 163
1 vote
191 views

### Specular reflection with different viewing direction where reflection direction and viewing direction coincide

Suppose $P_1$ and $P_2$ two different points on surface. And let $l$: be the light source direction, $n$: normal vector $r$: specular reflection direction $v$: viewing direction . In case 1 (at $P_1$...
• 211
1 vote
71 views

### [Subsurface Scattering]What's the meaning of diffuse coefficient Rd in bssrdf

Recently, i am reading the papaer A Practical Model for Subsurface Light Transport . I have understand the radiative transport equation : and the approximation of the diffusion equation: . In BRDF ...
• 25
1 vote
85 views

### [Subsurface Scattering]Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface Scattering

Recently, I am doing some research about subsurface scattering. i am a little confused about the backscattered radiance mentioned in this paper Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface ...
• 25
371 views

I am writing a raytracer which is meant to support shadows. Previously, I have naively implemented hard shadows by casting a shadow ray towards the light (+ offset) and seeing if it hits anything ...
701 views

### What is meant by ‘NEE’ in computer graphics?

I am reading this paper [Practical Path Guiding for Efficient Light-Transport Simulation, Müller et al, 2017] and it contains the following sentence: In practice, however, we recommend combining path-...
265 views

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### Trying to understand how to render a volumetric point light

My goal is to render a volumetric point light as explained in this book's chapter 10: FGED Rendering The book explains the math pretty well, but I'm not sure I understand what is the required setup ...
• 291
84 views

### Motivation behind tesselation

This question is NOT about the hardware difficulties and shortcomings of tesselation shaders I am trying to understand the motivation behind tesselation shaders. Why/when/where tesselation is a good ...
• 299
178 views

### Techniques to implement a glow that encompasses a volume

I have an old renderer from years ago written with OpenGL immediate mode. I've decided to learn Vulkan and I'm converting my old project as a way to learn the new concepts. One of the things my old ...
• 123
1 vote
107 views

### Area-light approximation in 2D

I’m trying to render a 2D image something like this: …where an arbitrary shape has its border illuminated by a line in a relatively physically accurate way, i.e. with less illumination reaching the ...
• 2,172
1 vote
253 views

### Ray tracing Bug with Diffuse material

I am trying to do ray tracing in python (following the tutorial given in Ray Tracing in a weekend). Basically I am shooting rays from eye and the recursively bounce around, each time they hit ...
• 131
1 vote
89 views

### Is spectral response curve and spectral power distribution the same thing?

I'm reading section 5.2 of pbrt 3rd edition and came across the part where they explain the concept of RGB colors. When we display an RGB color on a display, the spectrum that is actually displayed ...
• 113
104 views

### Why do materials have both an ambient color and a diffuse color?

One of the first things I learned about computer graphics lighting (and light in general) is that when a ray of light hits a surface, the surface absorbs certain colors and the light retains the rest. ...
58 views

### How's this laser cutting effect with backlight achieved?

Sorry for the general question, I don't even know how to tag it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61UkkpsASwQ In this video, the effect is such as if there were a laser cutting a shape with a light ...
1 vote
92 views

### How to use IES Light Profile with an area light source?

I want to use IES profile with an area light. My understanding is that the IES file assume the source to be a point light. That is in case of (large)area light the measurements are taken at a distance(...
• 730
111 views

### What effects are used to light this scene?

I am interested how that image on the right of the slider (just albedo) can produce such a realistic looking scene as the scene on the left. What effects (at a minimum) does this scene seem to be ...
• 113
246 views

### "whiteness" in center of bright colored lights - what is it called?

When a source of colored light is very bright, it's center appears white. What is the term I need to look for so I can implement this in my shader? I have added an image which is an example of what I ...
• 312
41 views

### I am trying to find a clip about the art of old computer graphics

I have saw a clip where a guy talked about the art of squeezing some nice graphics into a very small space that was available on old computers. Come to think of it, it sounded something like today's ...
168 views

### IBL looks too dark with uniform sampling

I'm making a program that illuminates a sphere using an environment map. For each fragment in the sphere, I compute a many random directions in the hemisphere along the surface normal (no importance ...
• 137