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Questions tagged [rendering]

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35
votes
4answers
15k views

Albedo vs Diffuse

Every time I think I understand the relationship between the two terms, I get more information that confuses me. I thought they were synonymous, but now I'm not sure. What is the difference between "...
31
votes
3answers
9k views

When is a compute shader more efficient than a pixel shader for image filtering?

Image filtering operations such as blurs, SSAO, bloom and so forth are usually done using pixel shaders and "gather" operations, where each pixel shader invocation issues a number of texture fetches ...
25
votes
3answers
2k views

Avoiding z-fighting with coincident surfaces

When rendering two overlapping co-planar surfaces, a common issue is "z-fighting", where the renderer can't decide which of the two surfaces is closer to the camera, giving visual artifacts in the ...
24
votes
2answers
8k views

How can virtual texturing actually be efficient?

For reference, what I'm referring to is the "generic name" for the technique first(I believe) introduced with idTech 5's MegaTexture technology. See the video here for a quick glance on how it works. ...
18
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the “dipole approximation” for subsurface scattering?

If you read papers about subsurface scattering, you'll frequently come across references to something called the "dipole approximation". This term seems to go back to the paper A Practical Model for ...
18
votes
2answers
540 views

How do correlated samples influence the behavior of a Monte Carlo renderer?

Most descriptions of Monte Carlo rendering methods, such as path tracing or bidirectional path tracing, assume that samples are generated independently; that is, a standard random number generator is ...
15
votes
3answers
4k views

Difference between rendering in OpenGL and 3D animation software

With OpenGL and such I can render some pretty amazing looking things in "real time" 60 FPS. However, if I try to make a video of that same scene in let's say Maya, or 3ds Max it would take MUCH MUCH ...
14
votes
4answers
382 views

What physical properties are “lacking” to keep this 3D scene from looking like a real photograph?

So I know that I'm basically asking to identify the main problem to be solved in creating realistic 3d Graphics, but as someone without much technical experience in the field, I'm curious that if ...
13
votes
3answers
2k views

What are some methods to render transparency in OpenGL

Alpha blending can be turned on to make surfaces transparent, like so: ...
12
votes
1answer
487 views

Compensation for energy loss in single-scattering microfacet BSDF models

Single-scattering microfacet-based surface models like the original Torrance-Sparrow BRDF or derived models like the BSDF for rough dielectric surfaces by Walter et al. neglect inter-reflection of ...
12
votes
3answers
1k views

Importance Sampling of Environment Maps

What is the best currently known and ideally also production-verified approach for sampling environment maps (EM) in a MIS-based uni-directional path tracer and similar types of renderers? I would ...
12
votes
1answer
301 views

Ocean Wave Rendering

How could I generate the waves for a water body with whitecaps & foam and variable intensity of the waves? Is the surface a mesh with a normal map? Is there a formula for generating that? Is there ...
11
votes
4answers
518 views

For shader math, why should linear RGB keep the gamut of sRGB?

sRGB is often contrasted with "linear RGB." Images are stored on disk and passed to displays in sRGB, which is approximately perceptually uniform in intensity. Shader math is done in linear RGB, ...
11
votes
2answers
3k views

Physically based rendering and ray tracing

I've got a lot of confusion and I need to clarify some terminology and put together the knowledge. If I say that an engine is a ray tracer (so it uses the ray tracing algorithm to render the scene), ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

What kind of technology would be involved in the rendering of human nails?

There are many references related to the physically-based rendering of several natural features of the numan body, such as skin, hair, eyes. However, I could not find specific information about the ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

Correct Specular Term of the Cook-Torrance / Torrance-Sparrow Model

For a while I have been doing some research on the topic of Physically Based Rendering. One reflection model that is mentioned over and over is the Cook-Torrance / Torrance-Sparrow model. It seems ...
11
votes
1answer
2k views

Loop performance in a shader

I am wondering what's the best way to integrate a dynamic loop function in a shader? First, it seems that dynamic arrays are not possible. So, is it better to create a maximum size array and only ...
10
votes
3answers
962 views

Why do Vertex Buffer Objects improve performance?

From my basic understanding, a Vertex Buffer Object works something like this (pseudo code): Normally, if one wanted to say, draw a square, one could issue line drawing commands. ...
10
votes
2answers
206 views

Why for perfect reflections a surface must have G2 continuity?

Why for perfect reflections a surface must have G2 continuity (class A surface)? I would like a mathematical answer.
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Efficient rendering with many light sources

To render a scene with a single light source using phong shading, one can calculate the final color of each fragment passed into the fragment shader based on the ambient/diffuse/specular components of ...
10
votes
2answers
3k views

Cause of shadow acne

I know how shadow mapping works but I am not getting the cause of shadow acne! Can anyone tell me cause of shadow acne in a simple way and how is it related to depth map resolution?
9
votes
1answer
405 views

How does the rendering equation incorporate shadowing

This is how the rendering equation is written in the textbook $$L(p,\omega) = L_e(p,\omega) + \int f(p,\omega_i,\omega) \, L(p*,-\omega_i)\cos \theta \, d\omega_i$$ which component of this equation ...
9
votes
2answers
491 views

Can (and how so) shaders paint screen pixels beyond those that occupied by the shaded mesh?

I have some experience programming geometry and compute shaders - but never adventured myself in really playing with the fragment shaders. Currently, I am trying to better understand how they work and ...
9
votes
2answers
714 views

Fundamentally, how are 2D bitmaps rendered?

Suppose we have a 64-bit word-addressable computer and we want to program it to output a 5x7 character stored as a binary image bitmap (such as the one below) to a memory-mapped display. Since we ...
9
votes
1answer
428 views

How should I fill a shape consisting of Bezier curves and straight lines?

I have been working on a graphics library for some time now and have gotten to the point where I have to draw Bezier and line based fonts. Up to this point I am stuck with this: The green lines are ...
9
votes
3answers
612 views

What are the usages of software rasterization in modern game engines?

I am taking a Computer Graphics course this quarter. One of our lab project is about software rasterization. Now I am planing the project proposal and thinking about how to make it useful for other ...
9
votes
1answer
544 views

Trying to implement Microfacet BRDF but my result images are wrong

I am trying to implement microfacet BRDF model. I am reading Sebastien Lagarde's slides. I implemented formulas to my code but i think result image is wrong. Yellow is base color of material. ...
9
votes
1answer
168 views

searching for acceptable quality shadow mapping techniques

Recently while searching of solving the shadow acne problem of traditional shadow mapping I implemented exponential shadow maps. It did the trick (no acne at all) but at the same time introduced other ...
9
votes
0answers
121 views

Help with start up bias in Metropolis Light Transport

I'm trying to implement metropolis light transport based on this paper, and I have the basic thing working. I run the algorithm multiple times with different starting points, add the results for each ...
9
votes
0answers
401 views

How correct is rendering in XYZ / linear RGB space?

I have a spectral power distribution (SPD, 5 nm steps) for all light sources in the scene and SPDs for the reflectance of all surfaces under any light / viewer angle in question. I'm going to ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Rendering equation - why unsolvable directly?

Why is the rendering equation, introduced by Kajiya in 1986, not solvable directly/analytically?
8
votes
2answers
401 views

How to handle a parametric equation in raytracing?

After taking a look at the Mobius strip, I noticed its equation is really simple and tried to add it into my Raytracer. I tried a "naive" way by simply generating N...
8
votes
2answers
159 views

Are vertices reprocessed per-poly for indexed meshes?

I've been digging a bit into what actually happens at a hardware level on the GPU, and found NVidia's Life of a triangle which explains the pipeline pretty well, at least for green boxes. One thing I ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Area Lights in Path Tracing

I have been following the scratchapixel ray tracing tutorials online which have been great at explaining the theory behind everything & how to implement it. However, I reached the point where I ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Perspective Correct Texture Mapping

So I'm trying to correctly map my textures in my software renderer using the u, v coordinates but I can't seem to get it working. I got affine texture mapping working. This is what I can produce using ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

What is “Object Space Lighting”?

Looking at Star Swarm, a demo for the Nitrous engine, I found this little line: "Nitrous uses Object Space Lighting, the same techniques used in film, including real-time film-quality motion blur." I ...
8
votes
1answer
142 views

Proper architecture for rendering history of streamed data (points)

Overview My program receives some data points (0-400 per sec). ...
8
votes
2answers
542 views

What is a good approach for handling uniforms in modern OpenGL?

I'm creating a renderer using modern OpenGL (3.1 and up) and now I'm trying to create an efficient but flexible way of handling uniforms. I've been reading up on uniform buffer objects and on what a '...
8
votes
2answers
646 views

Eye Parallax Refraction

I am trying to implement the Parallax Refraction effect explained by Jorge Jimenez on this presentation: http://www.iryoku.com/downloads/Next-Generation-Character-Rendering-v6.pptx and I am facing ...
7
votes
2answers
196 views

What methods/technologies to reduce required performance for virtual reality are there?

I'm interested in virtual reality, but according to some sources, less than 1% of computers in use today have the necessary performance to run modern VR games, granted many of them are not intended ...
7
votes
2answers
493 views

Best technique to draw overlapping colored line segments that follow the same route

I'm not too versed in computer graphics so my question may be vague. I'm given a sequence of GPS coordinates which I draw on an iOS map, and they define bus routes. Some of the bus routes happen to ...
7
votes
2answers
342 views

Moires patterns despite using mipmaps

I am working on Silverlight app. I am trying to render floor covered with tiles. Although I am using mip maps I am still getting awful Moire patterns, when trying to render big area. What I am doing ...
7
votes
2answers
161 views

To what degree, if at all, can custom code be embedded in a PNG, GIF, or JPG?

Computer graphics files are in Windows rendered by components such as the Graphics Device Interface and Direct2D. Is it possible to create a graphic file that, besides displaying a graphic also ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Does PBR incur a performance penalty by design?

I am wondering if the various PBR models used in modern game engines for real time are heavier in terms of computation, that more classic approaches to rendering. Worded differently, is PBR just a ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Depth of Field in Path Tracing: What do I do with the secondary ray?

How can I implement Depth of Field in my Path Tracer? I have read this article which explains the theory behind everything & I already have a good understanding of what this effect needs to ...
7
votes
1answer
197 views

Matching a virtual camera to a physical camera

Say I've got a photograph of a scene, and measurements for part of it (eg. a room where I know the dimensions of the walls). Assuming a rectilinear lens, how would I go about setting up a virtual ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

What's the difference between irradiance and fluence/radiant exposure?

A paper$^1$ I'm reading says fluence measures the incoming radiance from all directions and that fluence is similar to irradiance. It's defined by $\phi(x) = \int_{4 \pi} L(x, \vec{\omega'}) d\omega' $...
7
votes
1answer
698 views

Resulting Probabilty Density in Path Tracer for paths using Next Event Estimation

I am trying to implement my own Gradient Domain Path Tracer by following the code of this guy who already implemented it: https://gist.github.com/BachiLi/4f5c6e5a4fef5773dab1 I already managed to ...
7
votes
1answer
89 views

using importance sampling to reduce the error of outscattered radiance

http://renderman.pixar.com/view/implementing-a-skin-bssrdf In this paper on subsurface scattering, I'm trying to understand how importance sampling is used to compute single scattering. It says that ...
7
votes
1answer
105 views

fix over exposure in importance sampling in screen space reflections

I am having my first encounter with the rendering of indirect reflections in the form of screen space reflections in a game engine, but i am struggling to get correct looking results. (patterns arise ...