Questions tagged [rendering]

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On modern GPUs, what hardware do vertex/pixel shaders have access to that compute shaders don't?

Suppose that someone implemented rendering for a video game using entirely GPGPU apis, like compute shaders or CUDA. Would it be possible to achieve the same performance as standard graphics pipelines ...
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2 votes
1 answer
38 views

How is the distribution of normals constructed from the distribution of slopes in 'Understanding the masking-shadowing function' paper?

Recently I'm reading Eric Heitz's paper 'Understanding the Masking-Shadowing Function in Microfacet-Based BRDFs', in section 5, 5.2, the paper defines the distribution of slopes and then says the ...
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Is the dichromatic model physically based?

lately I have been learning about photometry, and everywhere I look I see a BRDF written according to the "dichromatic model". Roughly speaking: $$\rho= \rho_D+\rho_S \cdot (...)$$ for some $...
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Text rendering - weird outline when zoomed

I'm writing a simple text editor using Vulkan for rendering, and I'm seeing some strange outline around the rendered letters if I take a screenshot of the text and zoom in, which bothers me because I ...
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1 vote
0 answers
62 views

Generating cheap perfect outlines for meshes in WebGL

I am tasked with creating an outline shader in WebGL (i'm using WASM/Emscripten, so an OpenGL solution will work too) for meshes that the user can upload into our software (be it .obj, .fbx, .3ds), ...
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4 votes
3 answers
134 views

Student-friendly ray-triangle intersection

I'm teaching a computer graphics course, and would like to give my students a function for calculating ray-triangle intersections (not just the point of intersection, but also the uv coordinates ...
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1 answer
79 views

Why does my Dell laptop monitor give this weird color banding?

I've noticed some very obvious color banding on the screen of my Dell Precision 7750 laptop while watching video (same in every video program; VLC, built-in Windows video player, etc.) Not only does ...
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2 votes
1 answer
150 views

Back face detection

Suppose I have one convex polyhedron, I need to detect back face. And $N=(A, B, C)$ is normal vector of polygon surface and vector $V$ in viewing direction. According to books formula and internet ...
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1 vote
1 answer
144 views

Rendering equation - brdf / pdf > 1?

I am creating a path tracer and I got some strange results when calculating the strength of light. I am using a rendering equation inspired by this diagram: When I use the cosine everything gets ...
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1 vote
1 answer
88 views

2d gpu powered rendering engine

First of all I am not sure if this is the correct place to ask my question. If it is not please be so kind to point me in a direction where my question is relevant. A while ago I came across this ...
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What problem of my bsdf?

This is a image of microfacetdieletric. But i can not find the problem. My code is : ...
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Using Perspective Rendering To Render A 3D Point

I am wondering how I can use perspective rendering to render a point onto a screen. An image showing perspective rendering: Say I have a 3d point (with x, y, and z coordinates), a point for the ...
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5 votes
2 answers
137 views

Confusion about HDR image pipeline

I am working on a path tracing renderer, and I want to produce an sRGB image out of the HDR image buffer I get at the end of my rendering algorithm. Up until now I have worked just by clamping values, ...
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Question regarding Memory-Efficient Order-Independent Transparency with Dynamic Fragment Buffer

I am currently reading the pdf regarding Memory-Efficient Order-Independent Transparency with Dynamic Fragment Buffer. in there it is proposed to do two steps before sorting the fragments: First, for ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Cosine in Rendering Equation and BRDF cancel out: Why cosine at all?

I am somewhat confused with the following issue reading about the rendering equation and BRDFs. That is, the BRDF is usually defined as surface radiance $Lr(ω_r)$ over irradiance $L_i(ω_i)cosθ_i$ for ...
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1 vote
1 answer
66 views

Uploading interleaved data in gltf buffers

Suppose a GLTF file provides a single N byte buffer which includes all vertex data for multiple meshes. The first m bytes are ...
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2 votes
1 answer
39 views

How is the beam transmittance calculated in PBRT V3?

In pbrt v3, the book gives this description of beam transmittance, but I don't know how to solve the differential equation like it says to get Tr , can someone please tell me how to solve the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
69 views

60px * 60px circle image appears pixellated when scaled down to 15px * 15px

We have a circle image with dimensions 60 by 60 px. We want to display this image in a smaller size (15 by 15) on a website using HTML / CSS. When we do so, the image looks blurry (ignore the cropped ...
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1 answer
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Is it possible to get recording device from meta data?

Im not sure if this is the right section to ask this question but i figured its worth a shot. Is it possible to take metadata from a video and use that data to identify what phone model was used to ...
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5 votes
1 answer
55 views

How to Achieve Radial Rendering

I'm making a POV fan and would like to display some simple graphics in real-time on it. I have a working naive solution with OpenGL, but I'm maxing out at 7 fps rending a simple cube on a raspberry pi ...
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1 vote
0 answers
64 views

"Interleaved rendering" in fragment shader

Intro I'm trying to render multi-channel images (more than 4 channels, for the purposes of feeding it to a Neural Network). Since OpenGL doesn't support it natively, I have multiple 4-channel render ...
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0 votes
1 answer
102 views

Trying to understand how to render a volumetric point light

My goal is to render a volumetric point light as explained in this book's chapter 10: FGED Rendering The book explains the math pretty well, but I'm not sure I understand what is the required setup ...
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3 votes
0 answers
58 views

Graphics APIs: read/write the same texture

I know we can't bind the same texture as an input resource to a shader and as a render target within a single draw call, Direct3D just forces unbinding of such a texture SRV, OpenGL says it's ...
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5 votes
2 answers
160 views

Rendering Hypercentric Perspective

I came across some Non-Euclidean Games which involve Hyperbolic Spaces, Spherical Spaces, Portals, etc. And, I noticed that they give quite deep feel of what Non-Euclidean Spaces feel like. So, I was ...
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0 votes
0 answers
62 views

Examples of cases where you write depth value in Fragment Shader?

I've very less knowledge when it comes to rasterization and typical rendering in games and other applications. So I was reading up on the rendering pipeline and found that the hardware could do early ...
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0 votes
1 answer
48 views

PDF of BRDF respecting the spherical coordinates

I'm reading the article Sampling microfacet BRDF. The GGX function is $D(h)$, the articles says the PDF respecting the spherical coordinates is $P_1(\theta)=D(h)Cos(\theta)Sin(\theta)$. But I think ...
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0 votes
1 answer
62 views

Are vertices of each LOD version always loaded into VRAM

Are vertices of each LOD version always loaded into VRAM? I know many game engines have a LOD feature for mesh vertices and textures. I'm just wondering if all vertices and textures of all(each) LOD ...
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0 votes
0 answers
42 views

How to dynamically calculate the Partial Derivative of any vector?

I have a problem that requires Partial Derivative of X and Partial Derivative of Y (Like OpenGL's dFdx() and dFdy() functions.. OpenGL Registry dFdx) However, the issue is, I dont have access to these ...
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0 votes
1 answer
61 views

Motivation behind tesselation

This question is NOT about the hardware difficulties and shortcomings of tesselation shaders I am trying to understand the motivation behind tesselation shaders. Why/when/where tesselation is a good ...
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0 answers
68 views

Is it possible that a superior, undiscovered 3D rendering method exists?

As far as I know, the only options we have for true 3D rendering are polygonal rendering, ray-marching and raytracing/casting. Why is that? Surely there must be other ways? Is there some paper ...
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5 votes
1 answer
801 views

What are 'mesh clusters' / hierarchical cluster culling (with LOD?) / triangle cluster culling and how do they relate?

I've seen several references to this and related concepts now but I can't find any hard details about these systems, and how they are implemented. The earliest reference I can find is from the "...
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0 votes
1 answer
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State of the art in real-time global illumination algorithms [closed]

What is the state of the art in global illumination algorithms in real time applications? Which algorithms or categories of algorithms are actually used in the wild and what are their characteristics (...
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1 vote
1 answer
55 views

What does filter mean in glint rendering and texture mapping?

I bumped into the flowing when reading paper. Can anyone help to explain what does filter means in glint rendering and texture mapping? Thanks a lot!
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2 votes
2 answers
84 views

How are rounded corners of user interfaces usually rendered in modern applications like browsers?

I'm just trying to figure out, how rounded corners are usual drawn for user interfaces in a performant way & as insight also try to figure out how it's done in Browser, as they allow for variable ...
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0 votes
0 answers
66 views

Ray tracing tree

Let's suppose that we have a light source. Which of the following are correct for the tree of recursive ray-tracing (ray tree) that create when we make the colors for each pixel in the screen. Which ...
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1 vote
1 answer
81 views

Ray tracing Bug with Diffuse material

I am trying to do ray tracing in python (following the tutorial given in Ray Tracing in a weekend). Basically I am shooting rays from eye and the recursively bounce around, each time they hit ...
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0 votes
0 answers
50 views

Order Independent Transparency: How to approach sorting

In an "Order Independent Transparency" implementation, one faces sorting a large amount of (as many as the number of pixels in the viewport) sets of data with relatively small number of ...
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0 votes
0 answers
94 views

What are Gbuffers?

Good Morning! I am in need of help to understand GBuffers. What exactly are they? and how can I access them through unity? Is it something I need to create? Or does the engine create automatically? In ...
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0 votes
0 answers
75 views

How to add spectral texture to an object? (Mitsuba renderer)

Summary I'm looking for a possibility to use spectral texture data in Mitsuba renderer. The texture is saved as a tiff image stack and is to be added to the surface of an arbitrary object. Software ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How to render and store a color gradient in a ramp texture for 16bit dataset?

I'm working on a scientific visualization project and need to create a transfer function widget. The volume data is either in range 0-255 or it can be 16 bit i.e. <...
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0 votes
0 answers
60 views

Combining two images based on their depth maps

Lets assume, we have two depth maps with us and their corresponding color maps. Now, our task is to populate a final image that will be displayed. Each pixel in the final image needs to be calculated ...
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2 votes
1 answer
37 views

Reading neighbouring pixels during object draw call

I need something to be cleared up for me, and I hope this is the right place to ask my question: I intend to attempt stochastic transparency, where I will draw glass panes and smoke particles onto the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
47 views

Plotting pbrt-v3 Gaussian filter

I want to plot the Gaussian filter of pbrt-v4 with a radius $(100,100)$ and a standard deviation ($\sigma$) of $0.5$. I would expect something like this: When I plot the pbrt-v4 Gaussian filter with ...
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0 votes
0 answers
56 views

How can I render a triangle mesh at 10bit (or 12bit or 16bit) channel depth color?

For a vision research experiment, I have a monitor that supports 10bit/channel (=30bit color). I want to render a triangle mesh in a simple scene that uses the full bit depth, and I want to save this ...
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0 votes
1 answer
39 views

Creating high quality background images for a game which have small areas of moving detail

I am in the process of making a 'Game' using the Unity game engine which features pre-rendered 3d background images. Currently, we are using JPegs but I thought it would be nice to get some movement ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
43 views

Efficiency of different Processors and GPUs

I don't really know where I should ask this, so I decided to come here. I want to send multiple 3D files to several computers to render, and for that I need to approximately determine when each system ...
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0 votes
1 answer
90 views

Path tracing: How to ensure we are sampling a direction vector within the visible hemisphere of a surface?

Given a surface Normal vector of an intersection point, how can one generate a random direction vector that is guaranteed to be in the visible hemisphere? The way I ...
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  • 241
0 votes
1 answer
102 views

How to link Intel Open Image Denoise in Qt Creator and use it to denoise noisy Monte Carlo path tracing renderings?

I've been trying to link my the Intel Open Image Denoise libraries for about a week and still have no luck as of now. This could partly be because I am also novice in C++ stuff. So I need some help in ...
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  • 241
1 vote
1 answer
153 views

Problem using Decaling with Stencil to avoid Z-fighting

I need to create a decaling into a surface like a mesh, and to avoid Z-fighting I've been using Stencil Buffer to Turn-off depth test and make the decaling over the surface the Stencil Op permits. In ...
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0 votes
1 answer
115 views

Using Software Rendering to make an External GPU

I was looking at the Raspberry Pi 4 specs and realized that running a software renderer on the pi could get some decent graphics. By using USB ports and Ethernet ports, I think I might be able to send ...
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