Questions tagged [pbr]

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22 votes
2 answers
7k views

How to properly combine the diffuse and specular terms?

As far as I understand, in a BRDF the Fresnel term is telling us the probability for a photon to be reflected or refracted when it hits a surface. The reflected photons will contribute to the ...
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15 votes
2 answers
5k views

What is the accepted method of converting shininess to roughness, and vice versa?

Most modern renderers use physically-based materials and their models are often parameterized over roughness. Since this wasn't always the case with renderers, conventional assets often don't have a ...
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14 votes
1 answer
1k views

Confused with PBR implementations

I'm discovering the wonderful world of math and I'm hitting a huge wall with PBR and naming so I have a few questions: As far as I understand BRDF describe how a material react to light (incoming ...
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  • 363
11 votes
2 answers
2k views

In a physically based BRDF, what vector should be used to compute the Fresnel coefficient?

The well known Schlick approximation of the Fresnel coefficient gives the equation: $F=F_0+(1 - F_0)(1 - cos(\theta))^5$ And $cos(\theta)$ is equal to the dot product of the surface normal vector ...
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10 votes
3 answers
2k views

16bit half-float linear HDR images as (diffuse/albedo) textures?

So I been thinking about this for a while and tried to google for an answer but without any success. If all your textures are 8bit LDR images, like JPEGs, couldn't that potentially cause conflicts ...
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10 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why normalise Lambertian BRDF by 1/pi?

Why is a Lambertian BRDF normalised by dividing by $\pi$? Since the area of a unit sphere is $4 \pi$, and the area of the half sphere above the surface is $2 \pi$, shouldn't it rather be $1/(2\pi)$?
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10 votes
1 answer
628 views

Rendering in radiometric units or photometric?

In traditional rendering, it is typical to do all the calculations with radiometric units, either as full spectral rendering, or component-wise (XYZ, RGB, etc). However, as modern rendering adds more ...
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  • 3,512
10 votes
1 answer
5k views

Correct form of the GGX geometry term

I'm trying to implement a microfacet BRDF in my raytracer but I'm running into some issues. A lot of the papers and articles I've read define the partial geometry term as a function of the view and ...
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  • 103
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why is the half vector not used in diffuse BRDF Fresnel calculations?

I am currently working with Earl Hammon Jr's Presentation PBR Diffuse Lighting for GGX+Smith Microsurfaces (now mentioned as [PBR, p.XYZ] and have read through (among others) Brent Burley's Physically-...
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  • 1,457
6 votes
1 answer
629 views

Dealing with blown-out highlights in PBR

I've been writing some custom shaders based around Unity's Standard BRDF, which is uses GGX distribution term and Smith visibility term. It looks great at either end of the smoothness scale (1 and 2 ...
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  • 2,302
6 votes
1 answer
1k views

Microfacet shading for diffuse materials

I recently replaced the Lambertian BRDF in my path-tracer with Oren-Nayar, under the assumption that I could adjust it to use the GGX distribution model with appropriate masking/shadowing. PBR ...
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6 votes
1 answer
555 views

The reciprocity of BRDF

Many books describe that a BRDF has the following property (reciprocity): $$f_r(x, \Theta \to \Psi ) = f_r(x, \Psi \to \Theta)$$ Why is the above equation correct? I think the above equation ...
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  • 523
6 votes
2 answers
398 views

PBR missing rim darkening on non metallic rough surfaces

If you have a dielectric (non metallic) sphere with a large roughness value (say, 0.95), and put it in a lighting environment that has a constant onmidirectional lighting value (such as 0.5) Cook-...
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  • 7,341
6 votes
2 answers
3k views

How to calculate attenuation and radiance in PBR? (point and directional lights)

I would like implement physically based rendering, following this tutorial I was able to find a list of light sources ordered by lumens, but I have no idea how to use it in the calculations. ...
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  • 248
6 votes
1 answer
129 views

Monte Carlo Integration

Let $I$ = the value of integration and $p$ = probability distribution. The estimator is denoted as $\left\langle I \right >$ and is $$\left\langle I \right >=\frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=1}^{N}\frac{f(...
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  • 523
5 votes
3 answers
419 views

What is the purpose of the projected solid angle $dA^\perp$ term in the definition of Radiance?

In the definition of Radiance, which according to PBRT is defined as flux per unit solid angle $d\omega$ per unit projected area $dA^\perp$ $$L_i=\frac{d\Phi}{d\omega\ dA^\perp}$$ My original ...
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  • 212
5 votes
1 answer
202 views

Error with tube lighting

I have recently been working on area lights for a small open source game engine called Urho3D but have run into an issues when rendering tube lights where the lights look the same as sphere lights ...
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5 votes
0 answers
139 views

What is the potential equation in PBR?

I'am studying PBR and the book introduce the potential equation. They said the potential equation can describe shooting algorithms better, and $W(x, \theta)$ describes the fraction of the radiance $L(...
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  • 523
4 votes
1 answer
270 views

Tasks of a professional graphics programmer?

Currently I'm 16 and in high school and I love graphics programming and I'm seriously considering it as a career path. I was wondering what a day as a graphics programmer looks like for offline ...
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  • 2,413
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

BRDF normalization

I don't understand how to normalize the BRDF. the constraint is that for each incoming ray, the exitant ray will be $1$ at most ie integral of hemisphere of $f_r\cdot\cos(\theta)$ where $f_r$ is the ...
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4 votes
1 answer
439 views

Roughness Remapping

I have been recently exploring physically-based rendering (PBR), but there is one part that still confuses me. I don't quite get roughness remapping, as described in the PBR section on Learn OpenGL. ...
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4 votes
1 answer
94 views

How is measured BRDF data recorded?

How is measured BRDF data recorded? Like the MERL BRDF Database. What kind of equipment is used and what are the key values that need to be recorded? I know one place this data was used was in the ...
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  • 2,413
4 votes
2 answers
353 views

Texture prefiltering for Linearly Transformed Cosines

I'm implementing Real-Time Polygonal-Light Shading with Linearly Transformed Cosines from Siggraph 2016. I'm stuck on the texture prefiltering (section 5.3). As I understand they use ...
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  • 556
4 votes
0 answers
1k views

Explanation of math of the Smith G1 term

In appendix A of the paper Microfacet Models for Refraction through Rough Surfaces there is a derivation provided for $\Lambda(w)$ but the mathematics is very confusing. Could somebody help me by ...
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  • 2,413
3 votes
1 answer
630 views

Iridescence/Thin-film interference integration as a layer

I'm trying to integrate the thin-film interference effect described in the paper "Belcour, L., & Barla, P. (2017). A practical extension to microfacet theory for the modeling of varying ...
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  • 33
3 votes
1 answer
335 views

Importance Sampling in Unreal Engine Formula Derivation (Irradiance term)

I am currently trying to understand IBL in Unreal Engine, and there are so much things that I don't understand about the formula. Unreal approximate the specular term of shading equation by doing ...
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  • 473
3 votes
1 answer
231 views

Strange dark spot when lighting in deferred rendering PBR shaders

It's probably something obvious but there seems to be a strange issue with lighting in my pipeline. I'm trying to keep everything in world space at the moment for simplicity but cannot figure out what'...
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3 votes
2 answers
609 views

Luminance and Radiance in computer screen

I am currently building a graphics engine. I have a slight confusion on the imaging pipeline of computer screen. My question is how does computer transform the colour in the final frame buffer to ...
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  • 473
3 votes
0 answers
258 views

Comparing different sampling methods for GGX IBL

I have made a demo that shades a sphere with an environment map. I wanted to compare 3 different ways of sampling the environment. Uniform sampling. Importance sampling with the NDF as suggested in ...
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3 votes
0 answers
80 views

Predicting reflectance functions from complex surfaces

There are three principal ways to obtain a BRDF. We can Derive an analytic formula using physical principles Use simulation given an assumed or measured model of the surface microgeometry Measure the ...
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  • 2,413
3 votes
0 answers
430 views

Mathematics of Sub Surface Scattering

Can somebody help explain the mathematics of Sub Surface Scattering in a Path Tracer based on the Diffuse Approximation in A Practical Model for Subsurface Light Transport ? I would like someone to ...
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  • 2,413
2 votes
3 answers
327 views

PBR : Understanding the right part of Split sum integration of specular IBL

This is the website I am learning from. In the specular part of IBL this is the split sum approximation Now the left part of the equation I have asked in This post and I have understood everything ...
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  • 169
2 votes
1 answer
146 views

Why can I see the diffuse lighting effect on a perfect mirror?

Currently I am learning PBR by Unity3D. I find that even I turn the smoothness to 1, I can still see the diffuse lighting effect, which does not make any sense to me. Imagine I trace a ray from my ...
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2 votes
1 answer
375 views

Bug: Overly Sharp Highlights in PBR

I'm still working on my BRDF equations. Theoretically, all equations are correct, but the hilights are super sharp. I'm not sure if this is a result of me not using Image-Based Lighting (I currently ...
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2 votes
1 answer
255 views

Why is cos(𝜃) in the denominator in the reflectance equation and in the numerator in the shading equation?

Background: I'm reading https://learnopengl.com/PBR to learn about PBR. In the theory slide (https://learnopengl.com/PBR/Theory), the author has the reflectant equation as The theta (the angle ...
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2 votes
1 answer
170 views

Confused on reflection coeffcient of Fresnel equations

I am reading a paper about layered materials. However, I am confused on the implementation of this paper. The following picture describe the layered material. r_ab is a complex reflection coeffcient ...
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2 votes
0 answers
149 views

Scaling of the final image in Metropolis Light Transport

I don't understand why the PBR implementation of Metorpolis Light Transport scales the final image by b / mutationsPerPixel. The authors write: Each Metropolis ...
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  • 163
2 votes
1 answer
112 views

how many watts are in the SPD of the color white?

Please help. I'm trying to implement a ray tracer, going by the PBRT book and got stuck on an issue that I fail to find the answer to. My scenes are made from objects and light sources. From that, I ...
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  • 23
2 votes
0 answers
104 views

How are fluid simulations handled in Computer Graphics?

How are fluid simulations handled in Computer Graphics? For a novice, there are hardly any novice friendly tutorials explaining how particles or fluids can be simulated. Things like smoke, crown ...
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  • 2,413
2 votes
0 answers
414 views

Is there a material table for the Cook Torrance BRDF?

Is there a material table that lists all the specific values to obtain a certain type of material (e.g: copper or asphalt) available? I found this table in the paper: A Reflectance Model for ...
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  • 2,413
1 vote
3 answers
344 views

How are Physically Based Rendering Methods Researched?

Recently a question that came to my mind was that How are Physically Based Rendering Techniques researched and developed? Do people just use current equations by physicists or do they create their own?...
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  • 2,413
1 vote
1 answer
510 views

Roughness Value of (Close to) Zero in Physically Based Rendering

In my Direct Light Physically Based Renderer, when I set the roughness too low (ie. 0.0 or close) the specular reflection doesn't show, not even at high resolutions and at perfect angle with the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
42 views

Is the dichromatic model physically based?

lately I have been learning about photometry, and everywhere I look I see a BRDF written according to the "dichromatic model". Roughly speaking: $$\rho= \rho_D+\rho_S \cdot (...)$$ for some $...
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  • 113
1 vote
1 answer
105 views

Conflicting definitions for the distribution of normals $D$ in microfacet BSDFs

Please do not confuse this question with this one. In Understanding the Masking-Shadowing Function in Microfacet-Based BRDFs, Eric Heitz defines the distribution of normals as. There, the footnote. ...
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1 vote
1 answer
406 views

Understanding the irradiance map generation

I am trying to understand how the generation of irradiance maps works. I was reading LearnOpengGL tutorial and Codinglabs article. Reading those articles, I got a bit confused about how we use ...
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  • 111
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Can't understand the Importance sampling GGX

I've read many articles relating to importance sampling of GGX. However, I still feel confused. The formula of GGX is : And many article says we should use this formula to sample: In the formula, ...
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1 vote
1 answer
167 views

How to implement physically based unit in pbr renderer

According to this note, Frostbite use photometry unit in their calculation. I am trying to mimic this feature, but I am not sure what transformation need to be done. I will try to explain what I have ...
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  • 473
1 vote
0 answers
74 views

Why my bsdf can not pass Chi2test?

I implemented a MicrofacetTransmission in nori. But it can not pass all Chi2test when alpha is large(>= 0.4 or ?),part of chi2test is passed.And I can not found the problem.Can someone help me? ...
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  • 31
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

Contour-line looking artifact on diffuse irradiance map

I tried implementing my own diffuse irradiance map maker after reading Learn OpenGL > PBR > IBL > Diffuse Irradiance. It takes an HDR image and makes six HDR cube map. But It keeps making ...
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1 vote
1 answer
81 views

Confusion of deriving the Jacobian of the reflection transformation in Walter et. al's 2007 paper

When deriving the Jacobian of the reflection transformation in Walter et. al's 2007 paper: First we have a macrosurface BSDF which is: $f_{s}(\mathbf{i}, \mathbf{o}, \mathbf{n})=\int\left|\frac{\...
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