Questions tagged [lighting]

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Rendering equation - brdf / pdf > 1?

I am creating a path tracer and I got some strange results when calculating the strength of light. I am using a rendering equation inspired by this diagram: When I use the cosine everything gets ...
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78 views

How are point and pure directional lights sampled in an unbiased path tracer?

To perform importance sampling on a light source, a probability density function must be provided for the sampling distribution. For most light sources, a valid probability distribution can be found, ...
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49 views

Are virtual point lights in many-light global illumination the same light probes?

There are several papers like this one here that refer to a concept called many-light global illumination using Virtual Point Lights (VPL). That is, the problem of global illumination is reduced to a ...
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1answer
60 views

Next Event Estimation for Triangle-based Light Sources

I have a question regarding the NEE for light sources that are composed from triangles. I implemented the next event estimation (explicit light source sampling) for spherical light sources but after ...
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1answer
56 views

OpenGL old-style diffuse shading producing unexpected effects

Question: What is going wrong with the shape of the contours of constant illumination in the below picture ? Detail: Although Lambertian shading might be ill-regarded because it exposes the hard edges ...
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1answer
108 views

Specular reflection with different viewing direction where reflection direction and viewing direction coincide

Suppose $P_1$ and $P_2$ two different points on surface. And let $l$: be the light source direction, $n$: normal vector $r$: specular reflection direction $v$: viewing direction . In case 1 (at $P_1$...
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1answer
37 views

[Subsurface Scattering]What's the meaning of diffuse coefficient `Rd` in bssrdf

Recently, i am reading the papaer A Practical Model for Subsurface Light Transport . I have understand the radiative transport equation : and the approximation of the diffusion equation: . In BRDF ...
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1answer
43 views

[Subsurface Scattering]Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface Scattering

Recently, I am doing some research about subsurface scattering. i am a little confused about the backscattered radiance mentioned in this paper Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface ...
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1answer
57 views

Hard Shadows with Dielectrics/Transparency

I am writing a raytracer which is meant to support shadows. Previously, I have naively implemented hard shadows by casting a shadow ray towards the light (+ offset) and seeing if it hits anything ...
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51 views

What is meant by ‘NEE’ in computer graphics?

I am reading this paper [Practical Path Guiding for Efficient Light-Transport Simulation, Müller et al, 2017] and it contains the following sentence: In practice, however, we recommend combining path-...
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2answers
76 views

Ambient occlusion depth buffer normalization

Been trying to follow a shader from A Comparative Study of Screen-Space Ambient Occlusion Methods http://frederikaalund.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/A-Comparative-Study-of-Screen-Space-Ambient-...
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1answer
92 views

Trying to understand how to render a volumetric point light

My goal is to render a volumetric point light as explained in this book's chapter 10: FGED Rendering The book explains the math pretty well, but I'm not sure I understand what is the required setup ...
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1answer
56 views

Motivation behind tesselation

This question is NOT about the hardware difficulties and shortcomings of tesselation shaders I am trying to understand the motivation behind tesselation shaders. Why/when/where tesselation is a good ...
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1answer
62 views

Techniques to implement a glow that encompasses a volume

I have an old renderer from years ago written with OpenGL immediate mode. I've decided to learn Vulkan and I'm converting my old project as a way to learn the new concepts. One of the things my old ...
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1answer
60 views

Area-light approximation in 2D

I’m trying to render a 2D image something like this: …where an arbitrary shape has its border illuminated by a line in a relatively physically accurate way, i.e. with less illumination reaching the ...
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1answer
71 views

Ray tracing Bug with Diffuse material

I am trying to do ray tracing in python (following the tutorial given in Ray Tracing in a weekend). Basically I am shooting rays from eye and the recursively bounce around, each time they hit ...
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1answer
32 views

Is spectral response curve and spectral power distribution the same thing?

I'm reading section 5.2 of pbrt 3rd edition and came across the part where they explain the concept of RGB colors. When we display an RGB color on a display, the spectrum that is actually displayed ...
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60 views

Why do materials have both an ambient color and a diffuse color?

One of the first things I learned about computer graphics lighting (and light in general) is that when a ray of light hits a surface, the surface absorbs certain colors and the light retains the rest. ...
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51 views

How's this laser cutting effect with backlight achieved?

Sorry for the general question, I don't even know how to tag it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61UkkpsASwQ In this video, the effect is such as if there were a laser cutting a shape with a light ...
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45 views

How to use IES Light Profile with an area light source?

I want to use IES profile with an area light. My understanding is that the IES file assume the source to be a point light. That is in case of (large)area light the measurements are taken at a distance(...
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1answer
82 views

What effects are used to light this scene?

I am interested how that image on the right of the slider (just albedo) can produce such a realistic looking scene as the scene on the left. What effects (at a minimum) does this scene seem to be ...
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2answers
87 views

"whiteness" in center of bright colored lights - what is it called?

When a source of colored light is very bright, it's center appears white. What is the term I need to look for so I can implement this in my shader? I have added an image which is an example of what I ...
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39 views

I am trying to find a clip about the art of old computer graphics

I have saw a clip where a guy talked about the art of squeezing some nice graphics into a very small space that was available on old computers. Come to think of it, it sounded something like today's ...
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106 views

IBL looks too dark with uniform sampling

I'm making a program that illuminates a sphere using an environment map. For each fragment in the sphere, I compute a many random directions in the hemisphere along the surface normal (no importance ...
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1answer
41 views

Problem sampling uniformly envmap with GGX

I have made a program that samples uniformly an environment map and computes the lighting using the GGX BRDF. I have made a small example that reproduces the issue I'm having. You can check it out ...
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50 views

Can ambient light reflection of a surface be larger than diffuse reflection?

According to Phong's reflection model, there are different reflection constants (k) and different intensities of the light source (i) for ambient, diffuse, and specular terms: $I_p=k_ai_a+\sum_{m \in ...
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2answers
261 views

OpenGL - Recreate position in viewspace from depth values

Current state: I belive the reconstructed positions are correct. However, I still have the same problem as all the time. When I rotate around my single pointlight appears to be moving around also. I ...
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1answer
108 views

Raytracer help - Background color writing over some colors?

I'm implementing Peter Shirley's "Raytracer in a Weekend: The next week" and I'm having some trouble with rendering a scene with a light. I'm not sure if the issue is the background color or ...
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1answer
1k views

What is a vertex normal used for?

I'm new to the graphics area, and when it comes to the light part, the concept of vertex normals confuses me a lot. First, I cannot imagine how a vertex could have a normal, and second, when ...
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1answer
122 views

Prove radiance contributions of deeper paths fade away

When ray tracing, I find it intuitively clear that deeper paths have a lower contribution to the overal picture than shorter paths. This is the main reason why it is generally okay to render a picture ...
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1answer
253 views

What is wrong with my metallic PBR shader?

I feel like my light conservation math isn't correct, but I am not sure which part is wrong. Is reflected light supposed to influence the diffuse light? Does metalness only affect the reflected ...
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135 views

Pdf division in BRDF sampling

While following scratchapixel's tutorial on indirect diffuse implementation in path tracing, the samples gets divided by the pdf, which in case of a uniform pdf results in $1/2\pi$ so we have that the ...
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1answer
110 views

Confusion about light PDF

I have a doubt regarding shape lights pdfs, specifically various sources point at the fact that the pdf is a constant: $$ lightpdf = 1/A $$ Where $A$ is the area of the light surface. Expressed in ...
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25 views

Adding specular reflections to a ripple simulation

I am following the algorithm shown in this code here. Essentially there is a simple simulation of heights and then the difference in heights on the x and y axis respectively (sampling adjacent points) ...
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2answers
79 views

Techniques for making tesselated shapes appear smoother?

What are some common techniques for making the edges on a tesselated shape less apparent without increasing the amount of tesselation which is actually carried out? As an example, I followed along ...
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49 views

Formula for non area light BRDFs

I'm reading a graphics book and it talks about BRDFs being the ratio between differential outgoing radiance and differential irradiance. The formula it gives is f(l, v) = dL(v)/dE(l) Where l is the ...
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275 views

Why does Schlick's approximation contain a \$(1-\cos\theta)^5\$ term?

The approximation writes the reflection coefficient as$$R(\theta)=R_0+(1-R_0)(1-\cos\theta)^5,\,R_0=\left(\frac{n_1-n_2}{n_1+n_2}\right)^2.$$Why is the exponent 5? Schlick 1994 introduces this ...
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1answer
247 views

Rendering equation for spherical lights

I am currently implementing spherical lights in my DirectX game engine. I decided to build the shading formula from the classical rendering equation. Here is what I get: The simplifications show that ...
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0answers
107 views

Irradiance field approximation with black probes

I'm posting here after some time searching the Internet and reading presentations and papers, to find out the best options to solve the problem I have. I'm implementing irradiance field with ...
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1answer
475 views

Difference betwen Rendering Equation, Lighting model, Ray Tracing, Global Illumination and Shadows?

What is the difference between all these techniques? I know what a lightning model does, eg Phong, Flat, Gouraud. As far as I know both Ray Tracing and Global Illumination are just lighting models ...
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1k views

Color shading and light calculation for ray tracing

I am currently building a ray tracer and I came across a problem and confusion regarding the light calculations. For lighting, I am using the following mathematical model: Where ...
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1answer
403 views

Roughness Value of (Close to) Zero in Physically Based Rendering

In my Direct Light Physically Based Renderer, when I set the roughness too low (ie. 0.0 or close) the specular reflection doesn't show, not even at high resolutions and at perfect angle with the ...
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2answers
304 views

Do I need a normal matrix if I calculate lighting in an objects space?

As a quick reminder, here is what normal matrix is and why do we need it. Now the question - if I take the light position and transform it into an object space than I don't need the normal matrix at ...
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1answer
185 views

Pseudo rounded cube in OpenGL

If I have a cube in OpenGL, how can I have it appear like rounded? I think it's too complicated to really have the cube rounded so is there any "light trick" to have something like this: The cubes ...
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1answer
81 views

Physically realistic received irradiance values given some BRDF?

I am trying to simulate the actual response of a camera given some object that is reflecting light. I've written a ray tracer, and have a BRDF that I need to use, and I have a camera sensitivity in ...
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58 views

Clarification about Phong lighting model

I've read some tutorials about Phong and Blinn lighting models and tried to implement a rendered myself. To my knowledge, the basic approach consists of the following steps: calculate the vector from ...
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1answer
297 views

Tone Mapping in a physically based rendering ray tracer

I'm implementing a pbr ray tracer. Let's say that I'm at the end of the process: for each pixel pi, I accumulated the radiance value in vector pi = (radR, radG, radB). At this point, these values are ...
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192 views

Pre-filtered environment map, deriving the equation

I'm reading through this article, and more specifically I'm trying to derive the equation that would explain the implementation the following shader (still in the same article): ...
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33 views

gradual transition of light intensity formula

Imagine I have an x value that ranges from 1-100. The light source is pointed at x=50. From points 35 to 65 I want intensity to be 1 At the ends (ie 1 and 100), intensity should be 0 What formula ...
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1answer
268 views

How does Next Event Estimation work with transformed lights?

I am relatively new to path tracing, and I am trying to implement next event estimation. I am following the Monte Carlo integral used to compute the direct illumination from an area light: $$\frac{1}{...