# Questions tagged [brdf]

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79 questions
312 views

### What is the most physically accurate model of surface materials possible in computer graphics?

I am looking for theoretical and implemented models to represent surface materials in software that strives for physical accuracy. Is BRDF really the best model? What alternatives are better? Why? ...
648 views

### Why normalise Lambertian BRDF by 1/pi?

Why is a Lambertian BRDF normalised by dividing by $\pi$? Since the area of a unit sphere is $4 \pi$, and the area of the half sphere above the surface is $2 \pi$, shouldn't it rather be $1/(2\pi)$?
243 views

### Derivation of Wikipedia's path tracing diffuse BRDF

Wikipedia's path tracing algorithm has the following line for the diffuse BRDF: Color BRDF = 2 * m.reflectance * cos_theta; I'm a little confused as I've been ...
108 views

### Problem with Basic Diffuse Lighting

So recently I have been learning how to implement Diffuse Lighting in DirectX and I have done so with the following code: ...
95 views

### Should I use nonsymmetric BSDF for refraction in BPT?

I'm implementing bidirectional path tracing. I want to simulate perfect refraction. I read in the Veach thesis that a perfect refraction BSDF is non-symmetric. Does it mean that I need to use ...
192 views

### Real time image based lighting for arbitrary BRDFs coordinate alignment

I was trying to understand how real-time illumination happens with image-based lighting. I understood that importance of representing the Environment Map and BRDF in spherical harmonics. Because ...
252 views

### Bug: Overly Sharp Highlights in PBR

I'm still working on my BRDF equations. Theoretically, all equations are correct, but the hilights are super sharp. I'm not sure if this is a result of me not using Image-Based Lighting (I currently ...
272 views

### Blinn Phong rendering

I am trying to render Blinn Phong as a BRDF model on a surface plane. I assume that every normal in every pixel is perpendicular with the plane. I know that to do a rendering we have to use 3d ...
275 views

### Why isn't a BRDF a ratio of radiances?

I'm Learning about BRDFs and wondering why the BRDF is defined as the ratio of outgoing radiance to a given direction and incoming irradiance from another direction. Why isn't the BRDF defined as ...
1k views

### Rendering equation - why unsolvable directly?

Why is the rendering equation, introduced by Kajiya in 1986, not solvable directly/analytically?
414 views

### How to correctly implement Lambertian BRDF with point light

I'm implementing a simple Lamberitan BRDF in GLSL, using a point light source. My fragment shader simply returns light_colour * 1.0/PI * cosine, which should model ...
225 views

### What is the effect of the BRDF denominator?

I was reading a paper on BRDF. I've come across this formula : $$f(\omega_i, \omega_o ) = \frac{FDG}{4(N.V)(N.L)}$$ The (N.L) term can be cancelled by the cosine term which appears in the rendering ...
953 views

### In a physically based BRDF, what vector should be used to compute the Fresnel coefficient?

The well known Schlick approximation of the Fresnel coefficient gives the equation: $F=F_0+(1 - F_0)(1 - cos(\theta))^5$ And $cos(\theta)$ is equal to the dot product of the surface normal vector ...
2k views

### Correct form of the GGX geometry term

I'm trying to implement a microfacet BRDF in my raytracer but I'm running into some issues. A lot of the papers and articles I've read define the partial geometry term as a function of the view and ...
2k views

### Choosing Reflection or Refraction in Path Tracing

I am trying to implement refraction and transmission in my path tracer and I'm a bit unsure on how to implement it. First, some background: When light hits a surface, a portion of it will reflect, ...
463 views

### How to properly implement Phong material and importance sample it in a path tracer?

I'm recently implementing Phong materials in my path tracer. My implementation of a randomly sampled Phong material works and looks fine. But it doesn't work well if the shininess(aka power) is too ...
308 views

### Why does the 1/r² term appear with point sources?

I'm currently reading some books on radiometry. They mention that radiance is constant along a ray. It doesn't change with distance. However, I've seen some raytracer and they put the 1/r² factor when ...
68 views

### Data fitting SVBRDF with L-M

I am reading two shot svbrdf capture . I want to understand the data fitting. For example, I have my input image 3000x2000 pixels, and I divide it to create my source tiles of 192x192 pixels. The way ...
4k views

### How to properly combine the diffuse and specular terms?

As far as I understand, in a BRDF the Fresnel term is telling us the probability for a photon to be reflected or refracted when it hits a surface. The reflected photons will contribute to the ...
488 views

### Compensation for energy loss in single-scattering microfacet BSDF models

Single-scattering microfacet-based surface models like the original Torrance-Sparrow BRDF or derived models like the BSDF for rough dielectric surfaces by Walter et al. neglect inter-reflection of ...
217 views

### Ray tracing - BRDF using Cornell measured spectral data

I wrote a ray tracer that implements various BRDF models (Oren Nayar, Lamber, Torrance Sparrow and so on). Now I'm trying to implement a BRDF from measured data. I choose the Cornell database data ...
142 views

### Reasons of the assumptions for the microfacet distribution function?

The paper Microfacet Models for Refraction through Rough Surfaces (among others) reminds us the following assumptions about the microfacet distribution function D: Microfacet density is positive ...
957 views

### BRDF and Spherical coordinate in ray tracing

I developed a ray tracer that use standard phong/blinn phong lighting model. Now I'm modifying it to support physically based rendering, so I'm implementing various BRDF models. At the moment I'm ...
344 views

### How does Smith multiple scattering interact with diffuse subsurface scattering?

The Multiple Scattering Microfacet BSDFs with the Smith Model paper describes a statistical model for replacing the masking-shadowing functions in microfacet BSDFs (which account for paths with more ...
1k views

### Energy Conservation for Blinn-Phong BRDF

I am trying to sample from the Blinn-Phong BRDF. For testing, I use a spherical light source (Lambertian emission) sitting on a specular plane. Here's a reference image using energy-conserving Phong ...
528 views

### Fresnel reflectance of gold: red channel greater than 1?

I've been trying to understand some of the physical principles behind light and material interaction lately. In his talk Physics and Math of Shading, Naty Hoffman explains Fresnel reflectance and ...
129 views

### How to extract a BRDF from a shader [closed]

For normalization purposes, how to "extract" a BRDF function from an ad-hoc piece of pixel shading code ? If we have a shader function like: ...