# Questions tagged [brdf]

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### BTF Find Four Closest Sampling Directions

I am trying to use the techniques discussed in this paper to implement a BTF into PBRT. I am stuck on how to actually interpolate the weights of the four closest sampling directions. At the BTF, I ...
1 vote
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### How to understand Beckmann is a Gaussian distribution in slope space

I'm recently looking into how slope space is used in microfacet BRDF. Can anyone help to explain how Beckmann is a Gaussian distribution in slope space? Thanks
1 vote
107 views

### What is slope distribution

I was reading this slope space integral paper. Can anyone help to explain slope space and slope distribution mentioned in this paper, and why we can use normal and half vector to represent 2D ...
108 views

### How can I make the simplest physically based mixed specular-diffuse BRDF (and how to properly sample it)?

I am having troubles making a BRDF that has both specular and diffuse part. Each one is weighted by a coefficient and the sum of coefficients should be equal to one. I want this layered BRDF to be the ...
1 vote
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### How to find the importance sampling function for a specified BRDF?

I am currently working on BRDF and their associated probability density functions (PDF) in order to importance-sample them. It is really hard for me to find the correct way to compute the PDF of a ...
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### Why is the symbol for solid angle a small omega in the definition of the BRDF?

In many resources the BRDF is defined like $$f_{r}(\omega_{i},\omega_{r}) = \frac{\mathrm{d}L_{r}(\omega_{r})}{L_{i}(\omega_{i})\,\cos{\theta_{i}}\,\mathrm{d}\omega_{i}}.$$ The index $r$ might be ...
199 views

### Question about function for color

I would like a help to understand the following line of code: return float3(pow(color.r, 2.2), pow(color.g, 2.2), pow(color.b, 2.2)); I've seen some places calling ...
90 views

### Do all microfacet brdf models diverge at grazing angle?

My question follows directly this one. Reading the famous paper of Walter, it comes that the plotted curves of figure 13 (in question in the related topic) are not directly the brdf but rather the ...
90 views

### Path tracing: How to ensure we are sampling a direction vector within the visible hemisphere of a surface?

Given a surface Normal vector of an intersection point, how can one generate a random direction vector that is guaranteed to be in the visible hemisphere? The way I ...
117 views

### IBL looks too dark with uniform sampling

I'm making a program that illuminates a sphere using an environment map. For each fragment in the sphere, I compute a many random directions in the hemisphere along the surface normal (no importance ...
93 views

### Pathtracing - many bounces reduce shadows

I'm creating DXR PathTracer highly influence by Matt Pettineo's one - https://github.com/TheRealMJP/DXRPathTracer ; Relevant HLSL code below: ...
419 views

### Importance sampling a cosine distribution

Let's take a look at this blog article - https://schuttejoe.github.io/post/ggximportancesamplingpart1/ and image presented as a result of implementing it: Inside above link, you can see description ...
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### What should I do when a new sampled direction is below a normal oriented hemisphere?

I generate random directions from the pdf of D term in GGX BRDF. On the picture, white dots are new directions and the cross is the light direction, with roughness = 1. What should I do with the ...
302 views

### What is 2D BRDF Slice/Lobe?

I was recently trying to read some rendering papers and textbooks. The word 2D BRDF slice/lobe is often used while no official definition is provided. I know that BRDF is a 4D function of input ...
182 views

### BRDF for point lights should not return values over 1

This is standard Cook-Torrance BRDF in formulation for a single point light. No intergrals over a hemisphere, just a single direction to a source of incoming energy.  L_o = { \bigg ( (1-F) \frac{...
284 views

### BRDF that interpolates between diffuse, glossy and reflective?

Is there a way to obtain a parametrized BRDF that smoothly interpolates between diffuse, glossy and mirror? For example, $\lambda = 0$ would be perfectly diffuse, $\lambda=0.5$ glossy and $\lambda = 1$...
171 views

### How do I make sure my cosine-weighted sampling works fine?

I'm working on a pathtracer and while it's working mostly fine, I'm getting different outputs with cosine-weighted sampling and uniform sampling : Uniform sampling is on the left, cosine-weighted is ...
301 views

### How to properly combine diffuse and rough specular BRDFs in a path tracer

Looking around here on various sources (including related questions on this site), if my understanding is correct, when implementing a path tracer with a material which has both a diffuse term and a ...
1 vote
223 views

### BRDF sampling and evaluation of diffuse vs specular component

When I am sampling diffuse BRDF I am using cosine-weighted distribution and when I want to sample specular BRDF I use sampling by GGX distribution. I can decide how much light is reflected and how ...
488 views

### Correct way to think about Fresnel effect

I am using Schlick approximation to calculate the value of the Fresnel effect I found here When I try to find corner cases for the formula I get the value of 1 when the angle between normal and ...
219 views

### Understanding of Microfacet monte-carlo path tracing

I am trying to implement BRDF microfacet path tracing and I think I need a little push. I will explain what I understand so that you can correct my mistakes. I start with simple rendering equation: ...
167 views

### Pdf division in BRDF sampling

While following scratchapixel's tutorial on indirect diffuse implementation in path tracing, the samples gets divided by the pdf, which in case of a uniform pdf results in $1/2\pi$ so we have that the ...
168 views

### Understanding BRDF sampling

I'm trying to understand BRDF importance sampling following the exemples of the lambertian/diffuse model and the reciprocal Phong model. I would like to be able to extend the principle to other ...
1 vote
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### How to handle negative reflection directions in raytracing?

I got a function that generates samples from a GGX visible normal distribution function. When I use it to calculate reflection directions obviously some of these intersect with the surface agin (...
61 views

### Formula for non area light BRDFs

I'm reading a graphics book and it talks about BRDFs being the ratio between differential outgoing radiance and differential irradiance. The formula it gives is f(l, v) = dL(v)/dE(l) Where l is the ...
322 views

### Implementing the example of Walter et al. (2007) paper

As the title suggests I'm trying to implement the last images of the "Microfacet Models for Refraction through Rough Surfaces" Paper by Walter et al. in OpenGL I "think" (I had to ...
1 vote
241 views

### Should ray throughput always decrease when bouncing?

In the accepted answer for the question What is Importance Sampling?, in the example code there is this line: ...
194 views

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### Implementing GGX VNDF importance sampling with DXR

I am currently implementing the GGX specular BRDF in a DXR raytracer using the importance sampling method describe by Heitz I am sampling the VNDF with: ...
1 vote
475 views

### Roughness Value of (Close to) Zero in Physically Based Rendering

In my Direct Light Physically Based Renderer, when I set the roughness too low (ie. 0.0 or close) the specular reflection doesn't show, not even at high resolutions and at perfect angle with the ...
90 views

### Microfacet BRDF artifacts

I've been trying to implement a microfacet specular BRDF based on the equations in Real Shading in UE4, but I'm getting weird ring-shaped artifacts in the highlights of rough surfaces: Here's the ...
84 views

I am trying to simulate the actual response of a camera given some object that is reflecting light. I've written a ray tracer, and have a BRDF that I need to use, and I have a camera sensitivity in ...
1 vote
51 views

### Where to find BRDF textures

I've read about measured BDRFs and models like cook-torrance have parameters that need to be set. It isn't hard to imagine that these parameters and the measured properties would vary from point to ...
226 views

### Strange dark spot when lighting in deferred rendering PBR shaders

It's probably something obvious but there seems to be a strange issue with lighting in my pipeline. I'm trying to keep everything in world space at the moment for simplicity but cannot figure out what'...
197 views

### Microfacet GGX not integrating as expected

I'm trying to complete a look-up table for an energy-conserving variation of microfacet GGX as implemented here: https://patapom.com/blog/BRDF/MSBRDFEnergyCompensation/ I have a (pretty standard) GGX ...
77 views

### Confusion about data types in Jensen's subsurface scattering paper

I am currently trying to implement Jensen's paper on subsurface scattering, but I am getting confused when I am trying to implement it in my pathtracer. I have questions about the data types of ...
Perfect mirror's brdf is simple, $F\frac{\delta(\omega_i-\omega_r)}{|\cos(\theta_r)|}$ as in http://www.pbr-book.org/3ed-2018/Reflection_Models/Specular_Reflection_and_Transmission.html As shown in ...