I don't know if this is exactly what you're looking for. I work tangentially in the film and TV industry. I don't work for a studio, but I work on the software that studios use for their productions. It's software that any user could buy if they wanted to, but it has been used in feature films, television shows, commercials, music videos, and more.
About half of my time is spent programming and debugging. This is the fun stuff. It involves implementing rendering and filters of various types, sometimes based on papers I've read from SIGGRAPH or cool web sites or book. I don't do very much user interface work, though there is some. I work with OpenGL and Metal mostly. I need to know image processing algorithms in addition to general computer science algorithms, like graph processing and traversing, for example. This includes dealing with source control, continuous integration, stepping through code to find and fix bugs, talking to QA about problems, etc.
The other half of my time is spent doing non-programming things. This is a variety of things like attending conferences to learn (things like the Game Developers Conference or SIGGRAPH), conventions to promote the company and/or product (things like NAB, IBC, etc.), answering tech support emails and writing sample code (we have an API so 3rd parties can extend our product), attending meetings (scrum, management updates, company-wide meetings, etc.), talking with marketing about how our new features work, meeting with customers to understand how they use the product, explaining to our documentation people how the product works so they can document it, etc.
This seems like a pretty similar breakdown to other programming jobs in other industries from talking to my friends who work in other areas.