# What does "Bidirectional" in BRDF mean?

So Bidirectional essentially means "two directions", right? But what are these two direction (left-right? up-down? north-south?) we are talking about in regards to bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF), or bidirectional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) in computer graphics?

• It means their values depend on two directions (usually incoming and outgoing light). With a direction being a direction in 3-space, of course, not something like "up-down". May 21, 2017 at 16:37

In general the two directions in BxDF are incoming $\omega_i$ and outgoing $\omega_o$ radiance directions, often defined in spherical coordinates $[\theta, \phi]$ or as a 3D unit vector in Cartesian coordinates $[x, y, z]$. The BxDF $f(\omega_i, \omega_o)$ defines how much of the incident radiance $L_i$ from direction $\omega_i$ hitting the surface is scattered towards direction $\omega_o$. What $\omega_i$ and $\omega_o$ exactly represent depends on the context.
Often $\omega_i$ represents the direction of a light source, but it could also be the direction of a surfel reflecting light or some other light emitting/scattering element in space. $\omega_o$ often represent the direction of the viewpoint (camera/eye), but it could as well be the direction of a surfel or other point in space whose incident radiance we are interested in calculating.
While $\omega_o$ is valid for normal oriented hemisphere above the surface, there are differences in valid $\omega_i$ domain between BxDF's. Because BRDF defines the amount of reflected light $\omega_i$ is valid for the normal oriented hemisphere above the surface. On the other hand, BTDF defines the amount of light transmitted through the surface so $\omega_i$ is valid for the normal oriented hemisphere below the surface. BSDF is the sum of the two so $\omega_i$ is valid for the entire sphere.