I'm looking into the graphics pipeline processes and at the moment in particular, perspective projection matrices.
After looking in several different sources, and across the breadth of previous questions such as How does a projection Matrix work? | Stack Overflow, I've found that most solutions seem to use the following two matrices;
So far, I've been expecting these matrices to take the view frustum and convert it into a unit sized cube - however this doesn't seem to be happening.
Taking the left matrix first (which I attempted to use first), I assumed the parameters were as such;
n/f = z value of near and far planes
r/l = x values of left and right planes
t/b = y values of top and bottom planes
For the right hand matrix, my book is very vague, and the only parameters that seem to fit are
d/f - distances to near/far planes (but not necessarily the z values?) h - height of the near clip plane.
My initial method of experimentation has been to plot the vertices of the frustum and using the transforms get a resultant that the X, Y values can be used to display the image in 2D and with Z values that can be used to decide what polygons overlay others.
However, whilst I've been expecting a cube with dimensions of 1 -> -1 along all axes, instead I've been getting just an inverted frustrum.
I feel I'm either making an elementary mistake or am missing something key - would appreciate any help in clearing up both my uncertainties in what I need to do to convert my shape from the 3D to the 2D, and what I should be expecting. So far, my results are below.
The left hand picture shows the shape in a view frustum - and the right shows the original frustum and transformed frustum in green after applying the perspective transform which I believe should be transformed to a unit sized cube and not just a reflected frustum.
I've put my code below, and tried to simplify it as much as possible to make it easier to evaluate!. Thanks very much!
Updates I've updated my coordinates for view space coordinates - using a different method generates view space coordinates that go 'back' towards negative z values. Not sure if that makes it more correct but I hope it helps (but as per the comment).
Following the answer below I've added an attempt to perform perspective division. I've added the following code below the main bulk. Any further recommendations would be massively appreciated
clc; clear all; close all; %======Create View Space (hard-coded values for demo) & Plot =========== ws_fcs = [1,2,4,3,3,1,6,6,6,6,7,7,9,8,8,8,10,10; 2,4,3,1,4,4,9,8,7,11,9,13,8,12,10,6,11,13; 5,5,5,5,1,2,7,9,11,10,13,11,13,13,12,10,13,12]; ws_vtx = [-1.3416,0.4472,-1.3416,0.4472,-1.3416,-0.8944,0,0,0.8944,-0.8944,0,0,0.8944; -1.0954,-1.4606,0.7303,0.3651,-1.0954,-0.7303,-0.9129,0,-0.1826,0.1826,0,0.9129,0.7303; -4.899,-4.0825,-4.0825,-3.266,-2.4495,-4.4907,-4.0825,-6.1237,-5.7155,-4.0825,-3.6742,-5.7155,-5.3072]; position = [0;0;0;1]; focus = [0;0;-3.6742]; %Transformed set points figure(); grid on; hold on; xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); zlabel('z'); scatter3(position(1),position(2),position(3),'s'); scatter3([position(1); position(1)+focus(1)],[position(2); position(2)+focus(2)],... [position(3); position(3)+focus(3)],'s'); plot3([position(1), focus(1)],[position(2), focus(2)],[position(3), focus(3)],'g'); patch('Faces',ws_fcs','Vertices',ws_vtx','Facecolor', 'r', 'FaceAlpha', 0.1); %====================Create View Volume=========================== asp_rat = 0.75; %Most displays arent square focus = focus/norm(focus); %Normalise focus vector nheight = 1; %height of near clip plane hoz_angle = 2*pi/3; ndistance = 1/tan(hoz_angle/2); %distance of near view plane from origin fdistance = 5.5; %Define a far distance nc = ndistance*focus; %Centre point is focus vector * distance ntr = nc + [asp_rat*nheight; nheight; 0]; %Go from centre to TL corner nbr = ntr + [0; -2*nheight;0]; %Go down 2* height to bottom nbl = nbr + [-2*asp_rat*nheight; 0; 0]; ntl = nbl + [0; 2*nheight;0]; nr_plan = [ntr, nbr, nbl, ntl]; %Generate near plane points fc = fdistance*focus; fheight = tan(hoz_angle/2)*fdistance; %Find far plane height by trig ftr = fc + [asp_rat*fheight; fheight; 0]; %Go from centre to TL corner fbr = ftr + [0; -2*fheight;0]; %Go down 2* height to bottom fbl = fbr + [-2*asp_rat*fheight; 0; 0]; ftl = fbl + [0; 2*fheight;0]; fr_plan = [ftr, fbr, fbl, ftl]; %Generate near plane points frust_vtx = horzcat(nr_plan, fr_plan); %Create frustum vertex array frust_fcs = [1,8,5,6,4,5; %Faces defined with normals inwards 4,5,1,2,8,8; 3,6,2,3,7,4; 2,7,6,7,3,1]; patch('Faces',frust_fcs','Vertices',frust_vtx', 'FaceAlpha', 0.05); xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); zlabel('z'); %=============Create Perspective Matrix ============================== figure(); grid on; hold on; xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); zlabel('z'); scatter3(frust_vtx(1,:),frust_vtx(2,:),frust_vtx(3,:)); %Plot orig frustrum patch('Faces',frust_fcs','Vertices',frust_vtx', 'FaceAlpha', 0.05); left = nc(1) - asp_rat*nheight; %Get values for projection matrix right = nc(1) + asp_rat*nheight; top = nc(2) + nheight; bottom = nc(2) -nheight; near = ndistance; far = fdistance; proj_mat = [2*near/(right - left),0,(right + left)/(right - left),0; 0, 2*near/(top-bottom),(top+bottom)/(top-bottom),0; 0,0, -(far+near)/(far-near), -2*far*near/(far-near); 0,0,-1,0]; %====================Perspective Projection Transformation============= frust_vtx = proj_mat*vertcat(frust_vtx,(ones(1,length(frust_vtx)))); scatter3(frust_vtx(1,:),frust_vtx(2,:),frust_vtx(3,:)); %Plot frustrum points patch('Faces',frust_fcs','Vertices',frust_vtx(1:3,:)','FaceColor','g','FaceAlpha', 0.05);
%========================Perspective Division========================== for i = 1:length(frust_vtx) frust_vtx(:,i) = frust_vtx(:,i)/frust_vtx(4,i); end for i = 1:length(ws_vtx) ws_vtx(:,i) = ws_vtx(:,i)/ws_vtx(4,i); end scatter3(ws_vtx(1,:),ws_vtx(2,:),ws_vtx(3,:)); %Plot shape points patch('Faces',ws_fcs','Vertices',ws_vtx(1:3,:)','FaceColor','r','FaceAlpha', 0.05); scatter3(frust_vtx(1,:),frust_vtx(2,:),frust_vtx(3,:)); %Plot frustrum points patch('Faces',frust_fcs','Vertices',frust_vtx(1:3,:)','FaceColor','g','FaceAlpha', 0.05);